关于展览

ABOUT EXHIBITIONS

  • 从毁灭中走来-阎连科

    Come from destruction - Yan Lianke

    从毁灭中走来

    阎连科

        阅读顾长卫这样一批惊俗的骇作,如同赏遇王羲之持笔画出油画的惊世, 把它称为摄影”,一如要说西画璀璨的颜料之盒,母胎于中国古老砚台的子 ,尽管镜头也源于西方的现代科技,如同还没有失去昨日的记忆,然站在这 些惊人的摄影作品面前时,那些经典的现代摄影艺术,却忽然有了陈旧、 传统和腐的感觉,有了之乎者也深寒秋叶的枯息在这些斑斓的光、 线、点和彩片、图案叠拼并一气呵成的瞬间的久远和永恒里,有一种对前时、 前者毁灭的决绝;义无反顾的背叛,铸成的不仅是打开新门的钥匙,还有砸碎 门的锤镐。

    谁能知道,一个艺术家的勇气,会顿生聚力自哪儿。一如无法知道一只 蛾撞碎玻璃的力量。还如凤凰涅槃浴火时,向死而生,究竟面对无奈与死亡 的最后自救,还是让死亡成为最后的美的抉择。他是一个卓尔不凡的电影艺术 摄影家,在世界的声誉,如同东方林地中透进的第一束晨光。他是一个精 粹的电影导演,电影中对我们无关紧要的一株野草,都是他导演艺术林地里的 一棵树木或檩梁。这些新异的作品”,当然他漫长艺术生涯的积累和 才华的轰然之崩发,可又明明透露着他对自己和世人艺术的叹息与不 ,想要在毁灭中重生的渴求与从容而节奏的准备。

    于是,毁灭开始;破坏成了新的起点。

        前半生无论是作为电影摄影艺术家,还是导演之本身,在这些展出的作品 ,都被他自己怀疑否定。怀疑自己,否定自己,视毁灭过去为新始。已有 的成就、声誉光环,都被他视为前行新路的捆束,惟有挣脱、再生和, 才是一种新艺术孕育、降生的开端。与其说他的再造借助镜头,不如说他的 再造毁灭了镜头;与其说他的再造是一种跨界,不如说他的再造,毁灭了一切 艺术的边界,摄影、电影,国画、油画,东学、西学;凡此种种,一切艺术的边界和技术的可能,都被他拿在手里,随意地团捏、料配和发酵,终成了现在 如此骇俗惊世的无边界之作。

        也许,在他沉默的内心,早就有了推墙塌厦的隆隆之音,有了一种无边 界主义。所有的器材、技术、现代无限更新的科技,都只是他再生再造艺 术彩盘里随意取之、舍之、调之的颜。即便是现代最新科技器材中的金属与 新玻板,也都是他再造中的水光月色,和秋实夏花。摄影、照相的金属三脚 ,在他那儿,是千姿百态舞蹈美腿;光影明暗的借用调配,又有了音 乐韵律的跳动和音符声响的花开。

        静静地站在这些更为现代或后现代的作品面前,有一种火热滚烫的前行的脚,会在你的脑际和内心,风生水起,袭袭绕绕。这些作品,活色生香,有着一种艺术从再造到新创造完成的无数答案的可能。可以说新观念和新主义,也可以说隐喻和非隐喻,寓言和非寓言,象征和非象征,直接的通道和交叉小径的花园。甚至可以说,它什么也不是,只是有一个叫顾长卫的人,成为了一个新门类开山、别样艺术家;或说是一个叫做顾长卫的艺术家,成为了让我们更意外的陌生人。别说他伟大、杰出那样的话,只是觉得他这幅新的面相,让我们在熟悉中陌生,陌生中惶惑,可又在惶惑中感叹和认同,思之、忖之,慨然之。撩开观念的面纱,拉开主义的幕帐,看到了这些作品,从现代西方艺术走向东方现实那隐秘的径道。在那径道的尽头,中国巨大的现实,被一瞬间固在可触、可感极具物化实在的眼前。金银、钱币、明暗、物欲、理想,欲望与恶望、美好与丑陋、现实与未来,都被变的镜头、光色、标符为浓缩的细节,像把故宫长城天安门拆散重组,刻进了传统的鼻烟壶,或者说,是把国家的山河、川流未来,画在了一条西域领带的背面。之后,那被打碎、切割的细节,成了一个新的世界,成了巨大的未来的可能。在那烟 壶之内,或领带的背面,一面是一种实,另一面却是千古艺术。而他,却是将其倒正了过来,让其一面是全新抽象,使人以为纯粹观念的现代 和后现代;而另一面,当我们发现和看到了那现代艺术隐蔽、撕裂的缝隙中, 给现实留下窗口和门扉门而入,或打开窗叶,走过小径的牵引与暗示,也就蓦然看到了现实中广阔的扭曲;欲望上灿烂的恶花;田野上堆满了历史和 压迫我们心灵的今天最大的数字与数值情感终于沦落为一种统计灵魂已经 尺寸所购买。当然,我们也可以站在那窗边上,或伫立在这些作品门扉所 通的小径中途,从隐喻中剝壳,一层一层,一粒一粒,一为一,二为二。一切 都停留在展示的台阶上,让想象凝固为一种直观,看到顾先生、那位艺术家, 那位如我们一样的常人,他在用三脚架的美腿,为这个国家、现实、未来, 跳出一曲炫丽而抽象的舞蹈。

    你究竟要让我们看什么?

    他不言不答。 你说你看到什么什么,他只是静默地微笑;你说你什么也没看到,他也依然那么微笑和静默。这里的静默,不是作品的沉默,而是作品喧嚣中的静音, 燃烧的狂呼,静寂的尖叫。是探索的艺术落在现实的大地上最为放松 的姿态,最为舒展的妖,最为明快朗读的宣言。是境界中的新境界!而且这 个新境界,不是因为你在窗口或小径上读到了多义而境界,而是那位艺术家, 从破坏、毁灭中走来,站在怀疑否定上再造和创造,而终于找到并完成了属 于他——仅仅是属于他的创造的表达——

        一条通向新世界的境道。

        说这种新境界无边界主义也好,界主义也罢,重要的是这种主义 与生活、现实、东方之中国的连接,如闪电在大地落脚后的凝固,永恒的光, 成为无法复制的刺目,使联想、幻想、想像都在新境界中生根;使新境界中深 含着那位艺术家对艺术本身和现实中的人现实中的世界,那新的沉默的焦 ,微笑的不安,及不一样的讽刺、批判中包容和宽一切的新艺术和一个真 正艺术家的爱。

        面对新的世界,面对那个对世界充满爱的焦虑的人,那个视艺术创造为宗 教的人,那个把燃烧作为沉默微笑的人,要说的就是谢谢你;谢谢!

        更谢谢你献给我们的这番新世界!!

                                                                                     2014918

    Come from destruction
    Yan Lian Branch
        Gu Gu Chang Wei read such a group of horrifying horrors, as the case of Wang Xizhi holding a painting of the stunning, call it "photography", as to say brilliant Western painting box, mother of the ancient Chinese ink stone Although the lens is also derived from Western modern science and technology, as if it had not lost its memory of yesterday, while standing in front of these amazing "photographic works," those classic modern photography art suddenly had old, traditional and 縻The feeling of rot, with the "who also" deep autumn leaves of the withered. There is a decay of the former, the former, in these glittering light, lines, dots and color films, in the moments of eternity and eternity in which the patterns are put together, and not only the opening of new doors The key, as well as smash the old ⻔ door hammer ax.
    Who can know, an artist's courage, Dayton live together from where. Just as you can not know the power of a moth to smash the glass. Also as the Phoenix Nirvana bath, died to life, what is the final helplessness and death in the face of self-help, or make death the last beauty choice. He is a remarkable film art photographer whose reputation in the world is like the first morning sun in the Eastern Woodlands. He is a fine, pure film director, a weed in the film that does not matter to us, and is a tree or a beam in his directorial woods. These new and unusual "photography works" are, of course, a burst of flamboyance of the accumulation and talent of his long artistic career. He can clearly reveal his sigh and dissatisfaction with himself, others and the world of art, Reborn craving and calm and rhythm of preparation.
    As a result, destruction began; destruction became a new starting point.
        The first half of the year, whether as a cinematographer or a director himself, has been questioned or denied in these exhibited works. Distrust yourself, deny yourself, see the destruction of the past as the beginning. All achievements, reputations and aura have been regarded by him as a bundle of new ways to go forward. Only getting rid of, regenerating and creating is the birth of a new art. Rather than his remanufacturing with the aid of a shot, his rebuilding would have ruined the shot; rather than his rebuilding as a transboundary one, he would rather say that his rebuilding would destroy all the boundaries of art, photography, film, Chinese painting, oil painting, East learning, Western learning; all these, all the boundaries of art and the possibility of technology, are in his hand, randomly pinched, material distribution and fermentation, has finally become such a shocking "no border" Made for
        Perhaps, in his silent heart, there has long been a tumultuous wave of tumbling buildings and a "borderlessism." All equipment, technology, modern infinitely updated technology, are just his reproduction, reengineering art color plate at random, homestead, tune the expected color. Even the latest technology in modern metal and new glass panels, but also his re-creation of the moonlight, and the summer flowers. Photography, photography of the metal tripod, in his place, is a mix of dance legs; light and shade of borrowing, deployment, but also the rhythm of the music and musical notes beeps.
        Quietly standing in front of these more modern or postmodern works, there is a fiery hot foreleg footsteps, in your mind and heart, wind and water attack, attack around. These works, vivid and fragrant, have the potential of a myriad of answers from the re-creation to the new creation. It can be said that new ideas and neo-doctrines can also be said metaphors and non-metaphors, parable and non-allegorical, symbolic and non-symbolic, direct access and cross-trail gardens. It can even be said that it is nothing, but there is a man named Gu Xuan Wei Wei has become a new type of mountain, a different kind of artist; or an artist called Gu Wei Chang Wei, has become let us more Unexpected stranger. Do not say his great, outstanding words, just think he is this new face, let us familiar with the unfamiliar, strange apprehension, but in the apprehension and sigh, think of it, the generous, generous. Putting aside the veil of ideas and opening the curtain of the doctrine, I saw these secrets of these works from the modern western art to the oriental reality. At the end of that trail, the great reality of China was immediately touched by touches of shadow, sensible and very materialistic and real. Gold and silver, coins, light and dark, material desire, ideal, desire and hope, beauty and ugliness, the reality and the future, were all changed lens, light color, mark the condensed details, like the Forbidden City, Great Wall, After the door was disassembled and reorganized, it was inscribed into a traditional snuff bottle, or it was painted on the back of a Western-style necktie in terms of the country's rivers, streams and future. After that, the detail that was broken up and cut into a new world has become a huge future possibility. Within that pipe, or on the back of a tie, there is one reality on the one hand, and an art of eternity on the other. Here, however, he has just turned it upside down, giving it a completely new abstraction, making it a modern and postmodernistic concept of pure conception. On the other hand, when we find out and see the hidden and torn pieces of modern art Crack in the gap, leaving the reality of the window and the door. Push the door into the door, or open the window leaves, walking through the trail of traction and implied, also suddenly saw the reality of the vast distortion; desire to the brilliant evil flower; the field is full of history and oppression of our hearts today the largest Numbers and values. Emotion finally reduced to a statistic. Soul has been purchased by the size. Of course, we can also stand by the window or stand in the middle of the path through which the doors of these works pass, peel off the metaphor, one by one, one by one, one for one, two for one. Everything stays on the stage of the show, allowing the imagination to crystallize into an intuitive look at Mr. Gu, the artist, an ordinary person like us, who is using the legs of a tripod for the country, reality, future, Out of a dazzling and abstract dance.
    What do you want us to see?
    He said nothing. You say what you see, he just smiled silently; you say you did not see anything, he is still so smiling and silent. The silence here is not the silence of the work, but the mute of the noisy dinosaurs, the scream of burning and the scream of silence. Is to explore the realm of art falls in the real world the most relaxed gesture, the most exquisite seductive, the most brilliant reading statement. Is a new realm in realm! And this new realm, not because you read the polygamy and the realm on the window or the path, but the artist, coming from destruction and destruction, standing on suspicion, negating the re-creation and creation , And finally found and completed belongs to him - only belongs to his expression of creation -
        A gateway to the new world.
        To say that this new realm is borderless or new boundaryism is important. It is important that this connection be connected with life and reality. The connection of the East with China, such as the solidification and eternal light after the lightning strikes the earth, becomes impossible Copying the eye-catching, Lenovo, fantasy, imagination in a new realm of rooted; so that the new realm of the artist deep in the art itself and the reality of the people and the reality of the world, the new silence of anxiety and smile Uneasy, and not the same ironic, inclusive and forgiving of all the love of the new art and a real artist.
        In the face of a new world, in the face of the anxious person who loves the world, that person who regards art as religion, who says burning as a matter of silence and smile, is thank you; thank you!
        Thank you for giving us this new world!
                                                                                     September 18, 2014
  • 房间里的大象-孔长安

    Elephant in the room

    房间里的大象

    孔长安

        如果顾长卫的作品出现在七、八十年代的西方艺术界,那么人们会用形式、风格或者语言的方法评价他的作品。那是一个当代艺术用形式语言和逻辑观念争奇斗艳和创造风格的时代,理论和批评在意的是什么是艺术。而九十年代以来,东西阵营的瓦解,全球化的社会问题首当其冲,直至今天。当代艺术自然而然地参与了社会批判的责任。当代艺术家不断挑拨着社会中敏感的神经,当代艺术的理论和观众更关注艺术中的社会内涵。

        顾长卫是一位很有把握能力的艺术家。所谓把握的能力是指他知道用什么手段创作作品,以及如何平衡作品的视觉呈现和内涵的关系的比重。这里面有题材的选择我很吃惊他怎么就能那么巧选中了人民币百元钞中的图案!除了题材,还要考虑作品的包容性,也就是当你看到作品时,你的眼睛停留在作品的视觉表层上,但实际上你开始思考,你理性的一面显示出比平时更理性地梳理出一条条思路。包容性是指它触发了你的思考,也触发了其他很多人的思考,触发了很多人对很多问题的思考。而作品还是作品,里面并没有任何预先限定的内容。这样的作品就经过了艺术家充分地筛选和把握。我在很多当代艺术作品前感不到这种反应,但是在顾长卫为此次展览准备的作品前面,我被触动的很深。原因很清楚:他的作品拨动了早就准备发声的那根弦,我一直等待触发思考的契机。

       
    为什么是“i”?


        顾长卫个展的展题是“i”。中文的对应英文大写的“I”,英文的“I”的发声很像中文的。小写英文字母“i”似乎在表明一种当代的小我或者是普通人一样的微不足道的小小的我的爱。如果不是时代在变化,这种小我的感觉在中国也得不到宠幸。


    关于


        上个世纪50年代初到70年代末,是集体名词我们中的一个组成部分。而作为有独立思想的和独立生存状态的是难以存在的。首先,没有财产。50年代初,城市的公私合营和农村的人民公社运动几乎把所有人变成无产阶级。之后的反右、四清、文化革命等等运动消灭了大多数人的自我,一直被长期被压制的蠢动而不能外露。

        中国80年代开始的改革开放是之显露的开始。现代化的进程将中国变成了世界最大的生产大国和消费大国,也逐渐用金钱将生活中的政治化的内容取代。挣钱成了生活的目的,消费成了人们的生活内容。几十年经济的持续增长将中国变成当今世界最大的经济体之一,同时也在中国产生了私有制和众多的有产阶级和中产阶级。消费是自由的,过渡消费也不会有人说三道四。私有财产和消费自由使人民有了的感觉。不过,这个的自由感不是社会民主进步的结果,而是物质消费时代的赏赐,是资本时代带来的自由。

      

     人民币百元券


        顾长卫用一张人民币百元券的正反两面作为展览中平面作品的图像来源。微拍的手段把微小的局部放大,放大的图像等于把观众缩小。总之,他带你走进人民币的图案之中。你在他的作品前惊叹的不是造币厂特营的防伪术,你惊叹的竟是你在这些抽象图案中看到的另一种世界。我相信你我看到的东西是不同的,因为我们的感觉经验有可能不同,我们对事物的敏感性不同,等等。在我看来,每张作品似乎有各自的主题,有的仿佛从高处看到了迷宫、微观的生物体、腻人的甜点、像爆炸的瞬间、像情欲、混乱、迷惘、失落、慌乱、像磁力、像腥、烈日、网、神秘、扭曲的状态、像胜利、辉煌、战利品、像自我、像一种种熟悉的感觉     

        好像还不止是形象和感觉。百元券的标志性颜色、领袖像、政治性的背图、甚至背图中华表灯柱上的摄像头等细节也会使人产生其他的联想。当然,这更是百心百观,因人而异。哲学专业的艺评人沈奇岚观后颇感展厅中比邻的小空间如同天主教堂中的忏悔室,与这样的图像独处,倾听自我的心灵之声,会作何感想?


    视频装置


        顾长卫展览中的视频作品从不同的角度评说了我们这个时代。他的视频作品和平面作品构成了同一个现实的空间。大厅中央幕墙上的九个同步视频“4:30-5:10”20多个人在同一时间拍摄完成的。作品纪录了北京的人民大会堂在展览开展几天前某一时段的实况。这一个时间段的挑选给上海的观众带来了颇有政治生活气息的北京实景,也是两个城市之间的对话。三楼三个影视播放厅的另外三件视频作品分别涉及了三个不同的题材。龙头似乎通过几个不同人物的经历和心态塑造出一个抽象的当代中国的普通人,表现了过去三十年中,人们为努力追逐的梦想所付出的昂贵的代价。


    大象


        30多年前,我们一直向往着富足、尊严、自由、平等和民主的生活。今天,这些当年的向往实现了很多。但是我们却遭到了雾霾的眷顾,听说还有大量的垃圾围城和环境污染、水源污染。网络和新闻天天有巨额贪腐大案的报道,还有很多其他让人感到无奈的各种问题,诸如黑心食品、医药医保、收费教育、贫富悬殊、土地、就业以及文化市场的品位低下等等。当然,问题的显现和人们对此的警觉有助于进步,但是隐隐中还是感到这些问题仅仅是表面。


        顾长卫的展览让我想到英语的一种说法:房间里的大象 (an elephant in the room)”。这个比喻是指容易被人忽视的重大的问题和隐患。我虽然尚且不知房间里是否有一只大象,也不知我能不能找到,但是我希望睁开眼睛努力寻找。否则,为什么在现实中会出现那么多愚蠢的错误和问题,甚至问题被揭示之后让人不可思议。感谢顾长卫用他的艺术让我有所感想,感谢上海当代艺术馆所做的种种准备和支持才得以实现这个展览。大象在哪里,期待明目人。



    Elephant in the Room

    Kong Chang’an

        If the works of Gu Changwei appeared in Western countries in the 1970s~80s, they would be evaluated by their forms, styles or language, since the essence of art is the focus of theory and criticism in a modern art era that is dominated by diverse forms and ideologies. However, since the 1990s, the boundary between the East and the West has dissolved, and social issues become imminent than ever in the international community. Up till now, contemporary art has been involved in social criticism; contemporary artists continue to press the soft spots of the society, while art critics and the spectators pay more attention on the social implication of art.

        Gu Changwei is a competent artist. He is competent in knowing the right approaches and the right balance between visual presentation and intellective implication. Speaking of choice of subject matter - I was surprised by his clever decision on the patterns born by the hundred-RMB bill! In addition to the subject matter, the inclusiveness of works is another consideration. That is, in front of a piece of work, your eyes stay with what is visible, but in fact, your mind starts working; at this moment, your rationality is more rational than usual to tease out a line of thought. Inclusiveness means that an artwork has something to stimulate your thinking, many people’s thinking, and a lot of thinking on many issues, while the work remains the same, without any pre-defined content. Such a work is actually a production after the artist’s screening and fully understanding of the subject matters. Not many modern artworks touch me as profoundly as the works Gu Changwei presents in this exhibition. The reason is clear: his work strikes a chord that is waiting to sound, and I have been waiting for the opportunity to spark the thinking.

        Why “I”?

        The theme of Gu Changwei’s solo show is “i”. The English Capital “I” corresponds to the Chinese character “”, and the English pronunciation of “I” sounds like “” (“love”) in the Chinese language. Therefore, the lowercase letter “i” seems to indicate a contemporary “little me”, an insignificant commoner, or “modest my love” in the Chinese context. Thanks to the progress of the time, such feeling of “little me” has gradually been acknowledged in China.

        About “I”

        From the early 1950s to the late 1970s, “I” was an integral part of the collective term “we”. Any independent-minded and independent-living “I” hardly survived. First of all, “I” had no property. In the early 1950s, public-private partnerships in the cities and people’s communes in rural areas almost turned the whole society into a working class. The subsequent movements, such as Anti-Rightist Campaign, Four Cleanups Movement, and the Cultural Revolution, wiped out most people’s sense of self; “I” thus has been long suppressed with no intentional expression permitted.

        China’s economic reform that began in the 1980s initiated the appearance of “I”. Modernization has turned China into the world’s top country in production and consumption, and money has replaced politics as the content of life. Making money has become the purpose of life, while consumption the content of existence. The decade-long sustained economic growth has crowned China the world’s largest economy as well as created numerous private ownerships and capitalist middle class in China. Consumption is unrestricted; even excessive expenditure invites no critical remarks. Private property and free consumption validates the existence of “I”. However, the sense of freedom “I” acquired is not the result of social democratic progress, but the reward of material consumption in the capitalist era.

        A Hundred-RMB Banknote

        The image source of Gu’s exhibition is both sides of a hundred-RMB banknote, of which the images of small sections are taken by macro camera lenses and then enlarged in print. The enlarged images diminish the spectators. In short, the artist takes you into the pattern of the banknote. You marvel at his work not because of the deliberate anti-counterfeiting details, but another world composed by these abstract patterns. I believe you and I see things differently because of our different sensual experiences and levels of sensitivity. In my opinion, each work seems to have its own subject, such as a top-down view of a labyrinth, organisms under microscope, luscious desserts, the explosive instant, passion, chaos, bafflement, loss, discomposure, magnetic force, stink, blazing sun, net, mystery, distortion, victory, glory, trophy, ego, all kinds of familiar feelings... 

        It is not just images and feelings. The iconic color of the hundred-RMB bill, the national leader’s portrait, and the politics-embedded background, even the camera on the decorative lamppost induce different associations. Of course, it opens to different minds and various views. Shen Qilan, an art critic and philosopher, compares the small space adjacent to the exhibition gallery to the confessional in a Catholic church. What would come to our mind when spending some time alone with images like these and listening to the private soul of ourselves’?

        Video Art and Installations

    The videos in this exhibition present comments on our times from different angles. His video works and photographs create a universe of shared reality. The nine videos simultaneously shown on the central wall of the lobby were taken at a same period of time by more than 20 individuals. These videos documented a live street scene outside Beijing’s Great Hall of the People just days before the opening of this exhibition. The live recordings captured at this selected period of time is to share with the Shanghai viewers the political aspect of life in Beijing, and serves as a communication between the two cities. The videos shown in three screening halls on the third floor have their respective themes. “Long Tou” (dragon head; leader) seems to abstract a contemporary Chinese people from some individual’s experience and mental attitude/mentality, and to illustrate what it has cost the society in chasing the dreams in the past three decades. 

        The Elephant

        Thirty years ago, we had been dreaming of wealth, dignity, freedom, equality and democracy, which have been mostly attained today. However, those longings also introduce the visit of smog, siege of garbage, environmental pollution, water pollution, and the daily reports on grave corruptions in the media, on the Internet. It is not all. There are various issues that generate the feeling of helpless, such as food safety, health insurance and medical care, tuition hikes, the disparity of wealth, limited land resource, employment outlook and degraded cultural market. Of course, people’s awareness of these problems will foster progress, yet these problems are probably only the tip of an iceberg.

        Gu Changwei’s exhibition reminds me of an English expression: “elephant in the room”. It is a metaphorical idiom for a significant issue being ignored. I really don’t know whether there is an elephant in the room or I could find one, but I want to open my eyes and try to look for it, as so many oversights and unaddressed issues have been around and some exposed problems are so incredible. I’m very grateful to Gu Changwei, who inspires me with his artworks; I am thankful for MOCA Shanghai’s dedicated and generous support that makes this exhibition possible. Where is the Elephant? Only those who have insights can tell. 


  • 物的神秘与图式的颠覆—顾长卫作品分析

    The Mystery of Matter and the Subversion of Pattern

    物的神秘与图式的颠覆顾长卫作品分析 

        大约在2013年,电影导演顾长卫做起了影像艺术。他用微距摄影对人民币百元券做了超近距离拍摄,人民币完全失去了原有的形态,就像在显微镜下看到的微观世界一样,纸币的每一个局部都成了一个抽象的图案。有些成漩涡形的运动,有些成线状的排列,有些像极少主义的作品,只有隐约的痕迹和偶然的色点。也有近乎单色的平面,要仔细辨认才能看出浅淡的“100”的符号。从整体上看,抽象的图案是主要的效果,抽象似乎是潜在的主题。    无论是摄影还是拍摄的对象钱币,和绘画的抽象都没有关系,但是顾长卫的作品却是作为抽象而存在,并且是采用了另类的抽象,以机器的手段创造的抽象挑战了抽象本身的概念,而抽象的发展也到了历史的转折点。一方面是绘画的抽象已没有发展的可能性,另一方面是大众文化改变抽象发展的逻辑,两者是衔接的,顾长卫就在这个衔接点上。抽象艺术的发展有自身的逻辑,在西方现代艺术史上,抽象艺术是现代艺术的核心价值,其发展逻辑代表了整个现代艺术的逻辑,抽象艺术的终结则代表了现代主义的终结。看起来,到现在为止已被证实的是,绘画艺术不可还原的本质只在于两个基本的惯例或者规范中:平面性以及对平面性的划定;仅仅对这两个规范的奉行就足以创造一个能被体验为一幅绘画的物品。所以,一张绷紧的或者钉在墙上的画布就已经作为一幅绘画存在虽然未必就是一幅成功的绘画。格林伯格的这段话实际上意味着在绘画艺术的条件下,其不可还原的本质最终实现于绝对的平面,本质的实现也是抽象的终点。也就是说,如果抽象还有其他可能性,那就会脱离绘画的本质,亦即脱离绘画本身。迈克尔·弗雷德也谈到同样的问题:一个画家一旦接受了现代主义的基本前提,他就会意识到之前的艺术所抛出的特定问题,他的行为就不再是无根据的,而是被强加的。他可能在估量情境时犯错。但是,只要他相信这个问题的存在,相信它的重要性,他就会面对那不可忽略且无论如何都必须经受的情境,强行穿过的结果将会产生他的艺术。在现代主义的情境下,抽象艺术不可避免地走向终结,其典型的表现就是极少主义。极少主义并不意味着视觉与形式的价值,而是观念的意义。格林伯格说:一张绷紧的或者钉在墙上的画布就已经作为一幅画存在。但这不仅不会是一幅成功的绘画,而且也不会有第二幅这样的绘画。这样,抽象必须转移,必须脱离现代主义的情境。    后现代主义是现代主义的视觉危机,如果不与大众文化相遇,现代主义便会就地死亡。弗雷德猛烈批评的剧场化正是极少主义往后现代形态的转化,更多地体现在装置、环境和行为上。这种转化不只是现代主义在形态上的终结,也预示着其精英性的丧失。现代主义自命为传统精英文化的合法继承者,他们的艺术越来越脱离现实,脱离大众,如同其形式的表现一样,只剩下绝对的单一与曲高和寡。这种精英的死亡必定有合法的替代,这替代不在现代主义的内部,而是整个文化的替代,后现代的大众、流行、商业和消费文化,整个新的景观与新的前卫文化。替代也体现为两种方式,一个是大众文化翻转为精英文化,典型的表现是波普艺术,及广告、卡通、包装、商标等后工业视觉表象进入高级艺术领域。另一个是用大众文化的生产方式承接高级艺术的创造。也就是说,机器制造的商业图像经过挪用和复制转换为高级艺术的形态,这既有观念上的认知,也有视觉上的效果。极少主义的图式表面上是使抽象的形式达到绝对的简化,而实际上,单纯的颜色和多次的重复已预示着商业图像的方式。美国艺术家埃尔斯华兹把平涂的单色放大到大型绘画的规模,再按照绘画的展示方式顺序排列,很难区别这是一件极少主义的抽象作品,还是没有图形的广告牌。大众文化的翻转是通过艺术家来实现的,艺术家的策略就是在大众文化的条件下,创造现代主义的替代。    与现代主义艺术家不同,后现代艺术家往往具有大众文化的身份,他们是从自身的工作经历中来实现现代与后现代的对接与转换。大众文化的工作语言是他们创造后现代图式的基础,没有这种经验也不能催生新的图式,如安迪·沃霍尔,商业艺术家的经历使他能够利用商业图像的片断和局部,制造高级艺术的假象,以现成图像(现成品)取代抽象艺术的绝对平面。在某种意义上说,大众文化的生产方式和机器生产的手段,是后现代图像创造的必要条件,日常的、商业的和娱乐的图像是后现代图像生产的资源。重要的是,这不是从高级艺术到商业艺术的连续性,而是在后现代条件下继续创造高级艺术的类似物。顾长卫的作品就是如此。    波普艺术是典型的后现代艺术,它直接挪用大众文化图像,在当代社会的价值依托下,把大众文化转换为高级艺术。顾长卫与此不同,他是承接现代主义的连续性,创造出后现代条件下的新抽象,或许我们可以把他的作品称为后抽象。顾长卫的作品具有一切抽象艺术的条件,其抽象的结构主要体现为线条的组合与运动和线条构成的图案。以某一命名为《F-X057Y019》的作品为例,整个画面由不规则排列的直线和斜线构成,垂直的直线不是笔直地下垂,直线中间有折弯和断裂,穿越直线的斜线也是不规则的,好像与直线构成大小不等的网眼。虽然是机器制造的图像,这种不规则的组合又有着手工的痕迹,似乎是随意画出的线条,没有构图,没有向心式的结构,图式可以无限地延伸。抽象表现主义的作品(如波洛克)被称为满幅构图,同样是向四周扩散与延伸,消解逻各斯中心,为单色和极简打下基础。顾长卫的作品不是纯粹的平面和单色,因此他不是与抽象表现主义的抽象相衔接,而是获取抽象的合法性,再把通俗的东西转换为高级艺术。绘画艺术不可还原的本质最终体现为媒介和媒介直接产生的效果,这可能是格林伯格预言的抽象的最高境界,如果排除机器的特性,顾长卫的《F-X057Y019》可能是格林伯格的标本,但恰恰是顾长卫的机器(摄影)实现了手工制作的抽象图像的效果,而且是从通俗的、商业的、消费的现成图像中产生的。在这儿,高级与低俗、精英与大众融为一体。这种用机器的手段制造的抽象,重复和模仿了绘画的抽象,但却有不同的意义,它不指示着绘画的经验,而是指示着景观的经验。景观意味着在主体与自然对象之间波普艺术是典型的后现代艺术,它直接挪用大众文化图像,在当代社会的价值依托下,把大众文化转换为高级艺术。顾长卫与此不同,他是承接现代主义的连续性,创造出后现代条件下的新抽象,或许我们可以把他的作品称为后抽象。顾长卫的作品具有一切抽象艺术的条件,其抽象的结构主要体现为线条的组合与运动和线条构成的图案。以某一命名为《F-X057Y019》的作品为例,整个画面由不规则排列的直线和斜线构成,垂直的直线不是笔直地下垂,直线中间有折弯和断裂,穿越直线的斜线也是不规则的,好像与直线构成大小不等的网眼。虽然是机器制造的图像,这种不规则的组合又有着手工的痕迹,似乎是随意画出的线条,没有构图,没有向心式的结构,图式可以无限地延伸。抽象表现主义的作品(如波洛克)被称为满幅构图,同样是向四周扩散与延伸,消解逻各斯中心,为单色和极简打下基础。顾长卫的作品不是纯粹的平面和单色,因此他不是与抽象表现主义的抽象相衔接,而是获取抽象的合法性,再把通俗的东西转换为高级艺术。绘画艺术不可还原的本质最终体现为媒介和媒介直接产生的效果,这可能是格林伯格预言的抽象的最高境界,如果排除机器的特性,顾长卫的《F-X057Y019》可能是格林伯格的标本,但恰恰是顾长卫的机器(摄影)实现了手工制作的抽象图像的效果,而且是从通俗的、商业的、消费的现成图像中产生的。在这儿,高级与低俗、精英与大众融为一体。这种用机器的手段制造的抽象,重复和模仿了绘画的抽象,但却有不同的意义,它不指示着绘画的经验,而是指示着景观的经验。景观意味着在主体与自然对象之间的客体,这个客体由无数人工制造的图像构成,它不仅使我们远离自然,还使我们失去自然的本质,物化为客体。用通俗的话说,就是沦为金钱的奴隶。顾长卫的作品似乎是一种诱导,他把我们引入到纯然的抽象,似乎在重构抽象与极简,实际上是让我们在绘画的阅读中进入物化的圈套。    一张小小的钱币,却使顾长卫拥有了一个无限的图像空间。如果说《F-X057Y019》以抽象的画面隐藏了作者的意图,使我们陷入绘画的阅读,追寻抽象的多种可能,其他的作品则是在抽象的基础上暗示了当代文化的物质世界。由于微距摄影的作用,纸币上些微凸起的纹线显现出微弱的光点,使纹路有一点体积的感觉,似乎是某种物体的暗示,但无法辨识具体的所指,更像是由抽象向具象的过渡。如果抽象是某种精神的神性的话,这种具象的暗示则将抽象中的具象指向了世俗的世界。抽象与具象的交织如同观念和架上的纠结,如果在形式的语言上纠缠不清的话,后抽象(具象)就失去了意义。《B-X026Y019-A》仍在抽象的边缘,倾斜排列的短促线条构成一个不规则的图案,图案中间有一个抽象的方格,似乎暗示了抽象的身份。与不规则相适应的是貌似的线条实际上是在平面上凸出的东西,光线的照射显现出它的体积,使它由图案变成了物品,而且是作为现成品的物品。这是不可辨识的物品,其构成依赖于抽象的基础,似乎暗示了抽象艺术与现成品的关系,而且是从现成品中创造的抽象。现代主义在这儿被替换了,现成品成了艺术品,并且是像现代主义一样高级的、精英的艺术品。如果钱币是最普通的日常用品,钱币的使用是最基本的日常行为,那么顾长卫的作品就显示出一个后现代主义的艺术世界,他打破了现代主义对艺术与生活的区分,让日常的物品和行为进入艺术,开始了后现代主义的图式创作。    在中国的当代艺术中,现代主义和后现代主义没有明确的区分,中国社会的快速发展,使得传统与现代不是顺序的突破与转换,而是叠加、混战与重合。顾长卫的作品产生于后现代的条件,但针对的是现代主义的问题。他的行为本身就具有象征性,主要体现在两个方面,一个是作为摄影的行为,虽然他具有电影导演和摄影的身份,但摄影已是当代图像生产的主体,本身就具有大众文化的属性。当他在创作具有现代主义表面特征的抽象图式时,他是处在一种游戏的状态,一种通过摄影发现钱币的图案其惊人效果后产生的震撼。由此而产生对图式的发现,用机器手段,用日常物品,实现现代主义的效果,再通过转换、制作和放大,营造出一个现代主义和后现代主义相互叠加的视觉空间,实质上是一个后现代主义的生活空间。另外,以钱币作为后现代主义的图式选择,也暗示了现成品的潜在功能,这是观念艺术的一个重要因素。货币的意义自不待言,关键在于一个特殊的日常用品所隐藏的神秘性。顾长卫说,一张普通的百元钞票,天天在使用它,从来没有注意过它的形式。偶然的机会,在微距摄影的作用下,才发现它有那么复杂、丰富和隐秘的图样。货币的神秘性使人将自身的力量让渡给它的魔力,这就是人本质的异化和物化。顾长卫似乎是想探究它的神秘性,但他是从图像的表面进入它的内部,好像它的神秘都隐藏在那些抽象的图式中。他揭示出钱币内在的形式,消解了它的神秘。正如格林伯格所说,现代主义艺术是由一根金钱的脐带把它和资本联系起来,但表面上它远离金钱和世俗,一派高雅艺术的样子。    从现代主义进入后现代主义有多种途径,顾长卫的途径是特殊的,他不是通常意义上的画家与雕塑家,他是特定意义上的图像制作者,在他的位置上看到了一般艺术家看不到的东西。后现代主义是现代主义的视觉危机,也就是说,大众文化的图像生产将替代现代主义的图式创造,顾长卫正好做到了这一点。更为深刻的是,钱币本身不是大众文化的产物,物化、异化也不是后现代的术语,顾长卫则是从现代主义的图式进入钱币的内部,同样在图式的作用下,使钱币作为现成品,还原到它在生活世界的功能,实现了当代艺术的表现。在他的位置上看到了一般艺术家看不到的东西。后现代主义是现代主义的视觉危机,也就是说,大众文化的图像生产将替代现代主义的图式创造,顾长卫正好做到了这一点。更为深刻的是,钱币本身不是大众文化的产物,物化、异化也不是后现代的术语,顾长卫则是从现代主义的图式进入钱币的内部,同样在图式的作用下,使钱币作为现成品,还原到它在生活世界的功能,实现了当代艺术的表现。


     2015113

      


    The Mystery of Matter and the Subversion of Pattern — An Analysis of Works by Gu Changwei

    Film director Gu Changwei began his art of image in about 2013. In his macro photographs of a hundred-yuan banknote, the banknote loses all its original appearance, with each part taking on an abstract pattern—as in microcosms observed under a microscope. Some look like swirls, some show an arrangement of lines, and some appear to be minimal works of art—with faint signs and occasional colors only. There are also near-monochromatic planes, on which the mark "100" is only visible when looked at carefully. Overall, abstraction is the main desired effect and appears the underlying theme.The banknote, whether as the subject of photographing or filming, has nothing to do with the "abstraction" of painting. Gu's works exist as "abstraction" though, and they are of "abstraction" of otherness. This "abstraction", created by machinery, represents a challenge to the concept of abstraction itself, and the evolution of abstraction now is at a historic turning point. On the one hand, the abstraction of painting already has no potential for development, and on the other, popular culture is changing the logic of abstraction development; the two aspects are interlinked, and Gu stands just in the link between them. The evolution of abstract art has logic of its own. In the Western history of modern art, abstract art was at the core of modern art, and its logic of development represented the logic of entire modern art. The termination of abstract art implies the end of modernism. "It seems that it has so far been proved that the irreversible nature of the art of painting resides only in two basic rules or standards: the plane character and its delimitation; following the two rules alone is enough to create an item that can be perceived as a painting, and so a piece of canvas that is stretched or nailed in the wall already exists as a painting—not necessarily a successful one though." This statement of Clement Greenberg means, in fact, that given the conditions for the art of painting, its irreversible nature is ultimately realized by the absolute plane, and that the realization of this nature also means the end of abstraction. That is, abstraction, if there are other possibilities for it, would be divorced from the nature of painting, i.e. painting itself. Michael Fried, too, talked about the same issue, and said: "A painter, once he has accepted the basic premise of modernism, would become aware of particular problems that arise from previous art, and his acts would no longer be groundless but imposed on him. He may make mistakes when weighing context up. But so long as he is convinced of the existence of the issue, and of its importance, he would face up to that context which he cannot disregard and must undergo no matter what, and the result of his forcing his way through it would be his creation of art." In the context of modernism, abstract art would inevitably come to an end, and a typical example is minimalism. Minimalism doesn't mean visual and formal value, but the significance of concepts. Greenberg said that "a piece of canvas that is stretched or nailed in the wall already exists as a painting", but it would not just an unsuccessful painting—it would be unique. Abstraction, therefore, must change so that it is divorced from the context of modernism.Postmodernism is a visual crisis of modernism, which, if unable to integrate with popular culture, would die away. "Theatricality", which Fried criticized strongly, is right a change of minimalism towards a post-modernist form, and is reflected more in installations, surroundings and behavior. Such change is not merely the end in form of modernism, but it also portends the loss of its elite properties. Modernist artists proclaim themselves legitimate inheritors of traditional elite culture, and their art is more and more divorced from reality, from the masses, and like the expression of its form, remains nothing but absolute uniformity and abstruseness. The death of this elite nature is sure to be attended by a legitimate substitution, which occurs not within modernism, but across entire culture, including postmodern mass, popular, commercial and consumption culture, the entire new landscape and the new avant-garde culture. This substitution may also take on two forms. One is turning mass culture into elite culture, with a typical manifestation being pop art and post-industrial visual representations like advertising, cartoons, packaging and trademarks entering the field of high art. The other is employing mass culture's mode of production for creation of high art; that is, turning machine-made commercial images—through reuse and reproduction—into forms of high art, which involves conceptual change and visual effects. Minimalism ostensibly seeks the absolute simplicity of an abstract form, but in fact, its use of monochrome and repetition already indicates the form of commercial images. American artist Ellsworth Kelly enlarges the flatly applied monochrome to the size of large painting and then exhibits it in the way a painting is exhibited, making it hard to tell whether it is a minimalist abstract work or a billboard without an image on it. The conversion of mass culture is effected by artists, whose strategy is to create a substitution for modernism given the conditions of mass culture.Unlike modernist artists, postmodernist artists usually possessed the status of mass culture, and they affected the connection between modernism and postmodernism and consequently the conversion from modernism to postmodernism through their personal work experiences. The working language of mass culture was the basis on which they created the schema of postmodernism, and without such experience they would have been unable to give birth to a new schema. In the case of Andy Warhol, for example, his career as a commercial artist made him unable to use parts and segments of commercial images to make false impressions of high art, substituting images (ready-made) for the absolute plane of abstract art. In a sense, the mass culture's mode of production and the means of machine-enabled production were prerequisites for creation of postmodernist images, and daily, commercial and entertainment images were their sources of production. Importantly, this was not a continuation from high art to commercial art, but a similarity in continuing high art under postmodern conditions. This is the impression that Gu's works give.Pop art is a typical postmodern art; it directly borrows images in mass culture and, given the values of contemporary society, turns mass culture into high art. Gu's art is different: he continued modernism and created a new abstraction under postmodern conditions. Perhaps we can call his works "post-abstract". His works possess all conditions of abstract art, with their abstract structure mainly reflected by combined lines and patterns composed of motion and lines. In his work titled F-X057Y019, for instance, the entire image is formed by straight and oblique lines in irregular arrangements; the vertical straight lines, rather than extending down straight, have bends and breaks, and the oblique lines which cross the straight ones are irregular too, as if forming meshes of varying sizes together with the straight lines. Though machine-generated, such irregular combination appears to have artificial signs, and looks as if drawn randomly, no composition, no centripetal structure and extending infinitely. Abstract expressionist works (e.g. those by Jackson Pollock) are known as "all-over compositions", spreading and extending outwards in all directions and defying logocentrism, which paves the way for monochrome and extreme simplicity. As Gu's works are not purely of planes and single colors, he didn't try to link his works to abstraction in abstract expressionism, but to acquire the legitimacy of abstraction and proceed to turn common things into high art. The "irreversible nature" of the art of painting is ultimately reflected by the medium and effects that stem directly from it. This is probably the highest level of abstraction that Greenberg could expect to occur. If we disregard its machine properties, Gu's F-X057Y019 work could be a perfect piece that Greenberg would have desired to create, but it was just his machine (photography) that brought about the artificial effects of the abstract image which instead is derived from a popular, commercial and consumptive ready-made image. High and low culture, elite and mass culture are well blended in the work. This abstraction created with a Film director Gu Changwei began his art of image in about 2013. In his macro photographs of a hundred-yuan banknote, the banknote loses all its original appearance, with each part taking on an abstract pattern—as in microcosms observed under a microscope. Some look like swirls, some show an arrangement of lines, and some appear to be minimal works of art—with faint signs and occasional colors only. There are also near-monochromatic planes, on which the mark "100" is only visible when looked at carefully. Overall, abstraction is the main desired effect and appears the underlying theme.The banknote, whether as the subject of photographing or filming, has nothing to do with the "abstraction" of painting. Gu's works exist as "abstraction" though, and they are of "abstraction" of otherness. This "abstraction", created by machinery, represents a challenge to the concept of abstraction itself, and the evolution of abstraction now is at a historic turning point. On the one hand, the abstraction of painting already has no potential for development, and on the other, popular culture is changing the logic of abstraction development; the two aspects are interlinked, and Gu stands just in the link between them. The evolution of abstract art has logic of its own. In the Western history of modern art, abstract art was at the core of modern art, and its logic of development represented the logic of entire modern art. The termination of abstract art implies the end of modernism. "It seems that it has so far been proved that the irreversible nature of the art of painting resides only in two basic rules or standards: the plane character and its delimitation; following the two rules alone is enough to create an item that can be perceived as a painting, and so a piece of canvas that is stretched or nailed in the wall already exists as a painting—not necessarily a successful one though." This statement of Clement Greenberg means, in fact, that given the conditions for the art of painting, its irreversible nature is ultimately realized by the absolute plane, and that the realization of this nature also means the end of abstraction. That is, abstraction, if there are other possibilities for it, would be divorced from the nature of painting, i.e. painting itself. Michael Fried, too, talked about the same issue, and said: "A painter, once he has accepted the basic premise of modernism, would become aware of particular problems that arise from previous art, and his acts would no longer be groundless but imposed on him. He may make mistakes when weighing context up. But so long as he is convinced of the existence of the issue, and of its importance, he would face up to that context which he cannot disregard and must undergo no matter what, and the result of his forcing his way through it would be his creation of art." In the context of modernism, abstract art would inevitably come to an end, and a typical example is minimalism. Minimalism doesn't mean visual and formal value, but the significance of concepts. Greenberg said that "a piece of canvas that is stretched or nailed in the wall already exists as a painting", but it would not just an unsuccessful painting—it would be unique. Abstraction, therefore, must change so that it is divorced from the context of modernism.Postmodernism is a visual crisis of modernism, which, if unable to integrate with popular culture, would die away. "Theatricality", which Fried criticized strongly, is right a change of minimalism towards a post-modernist form, and is reflected more in installations, surroundings and behavior. Such change is not merely the end in form of modernism, but it also portends the loss of its elite properties. Modernist artists proclaim themselves legitimate inheritors of traditional elite culture, and their art is more and more divorced from reality, from the masses, and like the expression of its form, remains nothing but absolute uniformity and abstruseness. The death of this elite nature is sure to be attended by a legitimate substitution, which occurs not within modernism, but across entire culture, including postmodern mass, popular, commercial and consumption culture, the entire new landscape and the new avant-garde culture. This substitution may also take on two forms. One is turning mass culture into elite culture, with a typical manifestation being pop art and post-industrial visual representations like advertising, cartoons, packaging and trademarks entering the field of high art. The other is employing mass culture's mode of production for creation of high art; that is, turning machine-made commercial images—through reuse and reproduction—into forms of high art, which involves conceptual change and visual effects. Minimalism ostensibly seeks the absolute simplicity of an abstract form, but in fact, its use of monochrome and repetition already indicates the form of commercial images. American artist Ellsworth Kelly enlarges the flatly applied monochrome to the size of large painting and then exhibits it in the way a painting is exhibited, making it hard to tell whether it is a minimalist abstract work or a billboard without an image on it. The conversion of mass culture is effected by artists, whose strategy is to create a substitution for modernism given the conditions of mass culture.Unlike modernist artists, postmodernist artists usually possessed the status of mass culture, and they affected the connection between modernism and postmodernism and consequently the conversion from modernism to postmodernism through their personal work experiences. The working language of mass culture was the basis on which they created the schema of postmodernism, and without such experience they would have been unable to give birth to a new schema. In the case of Andy Warhol, for example, his career as a commercial artist made him unable to use parts and segments of commercial images to make false impressions of high art, substituting images (ready-made) for the absolute plane of abstract art. In a sense, the mass culture's mode of production and the means of machine-enabled production were prerequisites for creation of postmodernist images, and daily, commercial and entertainment images were their sources of production. Importantly, this was not a continuation from high art to commercial art, but a similarity in continuing high art under postmodern conditions. This is the impression that Gu's works give.Pop art is a typical postmodern art; it directly borrows images in mass culture and, given the values of contemporary society, turns mass culture into high art. Gu's art is different: he continued modernism and created a new abstraction under postmodern conditions. Perhaps we can call his works "post-abstract". His works possess all conditions of abstract art, with their abstract structure mainly reflected by combined lines and patterns composed of motion and lines. In his work titled F-X057Y019, for instance, the entire image is formed by straight and oblique lines in irregular arrangements; the vertical straight lines, rather than extending down straight, have bends and breaks, and the oblique lines which cross the straight ones are irregular too, as if forming meshes of varying sizes together with the straight lines. Though machine-generated, such irregular combination appears to have artificial signs, and looks as if drawn randomly, no composition, no centripetal structure and extending infinitely. Abstract expressionist works (e.g. those by Jackson Pollock) are known as "all-over compositions", spreading and extending outwards in all directions and defying logocentrism, which paves the way for monochrome and extreme simplicity. As Gu's works are not purely of planes and single colors, he didn't try to link his works to abstraction in abstract expressionism, but to acquire the legitimacy of abstraction and proceed to turn common things into high art. The "irreversible nature" of the art of painting is ultimately reflected by the medium and effects that stem directly from it. This is probably the highest level of abstraction that Greenberg could expect to occur. If we disregard its machine properties, Gu's F-X057Y019 work could be a perfect piece that Greenberg would have desired to create, but it was just his machine (photography) that brought about the artificial effects of the abstract image which instead is derived from a popular, commercial and consumptive ready-made image. High and low culture, elite and mass culture are well blended in the work. This abstraction created with a machine means repeats and imitates the abstraction in painting, but carries a different meaning—it is indicative of not an experience of painting, but an experience from a landscape. A landscape means an object between a subject and nature, which, comprised of countless man-made images, not only makes us far away from nature but let us lose the essence of nature and change to an object. To put in simple terms, we are reduced to the slaves of money. Gu's works seem to work as something that leads us to a pure abstraction, and they seem to reconstruct abstraction and minimalism but actually to let us enter a trap of the transformation of things in the reading of "paintings".A banknote, though small in size, gives Gu a boundless space of images. If we say that the work F-X057Y019 contains the author's intention—under the cover of an abstract image—to let us sink into painting reading and search for more possibilities of abstraction, then his other works implies a physical world in contemporary culture on the basis of abstraction. Due to the action of macro photography, the slightly raised patterns on the banknote reveal some weak light spots which give a sense of volume and which seem to hint at something—something unrecognizable but like a transition from abstraction to representation. If the abstraction is the divinity of some spirit, this representational hint points the representation in the abstraction to a secular world. Abstraction and representation are intertwined with one another as are easel art and notions, and if we are perplexed on the language of form, post-abstraction (representation) would become meaningless. The work B-X026Y019-A is, too, at the edge of abstraction, with slanting, short lines forming an irregular pattern in the middle of which is an abstract square that seems to hold a clue to the abstract status of the image. What fits this irregularity is the fact that the seeming lines are actually something raised above the plane, whose volume is revealed by light so that it changes from a pattern to an object, a ready-made object. This object is unrecognizable, and its composition relies on the foundation of abstraction, as if hinting at the relationship between abstract art and the ready-made object, as well as the abstraction created out of the ready-made object. Modernism is replaced here, and a ready-made object becomes a work of art as high and elite as modernism. If money is seen as the most common everyday item and its use represents the most basic daily behavior of man, Gu's works show a postmodernist world; by disregarding the distinction between art and life as made by modernism, he found a way for everyday items and behavior to enter art, beginning his art creation of postmodernism.There is no definite distinction made between modernism and postmodernism in Chinese contemporary art, and with Chinese society developing rapidly, tradition and modernity are being entangled and overlapping with one another, rather than broken through and converted in sequence. Gu's works target modernist issues, though they were created in postmodern context. His behavior itself is iconic in two main aspects. One is his behavior as a photographer. Though he acted as a film director and a photographer, photography, already the main source of image production, possesses the properties of mass culture itself. While creating abstract images ostensibly characteristic of modernism, he was in a game in which he was surprised by the amazing effects of the image of a banknote from photography. He could employ a machine and an everyday item to produce modernist effects, and through conversion, production and enlargement, create a visual space in which modernism and postmodernism overlaps with one another—in essence, a postmodernist living space. Besides, the use of a banknote to create postmodernist images also implies the potential function of a ready-made item, an important element of conceptual art. The importance of money is self-evident, and the key is the mystery it holds in secret as a special everyday item. A common hundred-yuan bill, Gu said, he used every day but had never noticed its form until he found, by chance, its macro photographs could reveal so complicated, rich and secret patterns. The mystery of a bill makes human power give way to its magic power in a process of alienation and transformation in the nature of man. It seems that Gu wanted to explore the mystery of a bill, but he approached its interior from its surface, as if all the mystery was hidden in those abstract patterns. He revealed the inner form of the bill and uncovered its mystery. Modernist art, Greenberg said, is attached to capital by an umbilical cord of gold, but ostensibly stays away from money and secularity and pretends to be elegant.There are ways to move from modernism to postmodernism, but Gu's is unusual. He is not a painter or sculptor in a common sense, but an image maker in a particular sense who in his position sees things that general artists cannot see. Postmodernism is a visual crisis of modernism; that is, image production of mass culture will replace image creation of modernism, and that is what Gu has done. It is more important to note that, though a bill itself is not a product of mass culture, nor alienation or  transformation of things are postmodernist terms, Gu approached the interior of the bill by means of modernist images, through which the real-world function of the bill as a ready-made item is restored, achieving the expression of contemporary art.Yi Ying November 3, 2015    


  • 意外形象—栗宪庭

    Imaging Beyond Images -- A Hundred-RMB Bill through the Lenses of Gu Changwei

    意外形象——顾长卫解析百元大钞

     

    老朋友孔长安跟我说:顾长卫拍了一些图片,是用微距镜头拍的百元大钞,你有没有兴趣去看看?我知道顾长卫学过艺术,从电影摄影师步入影坛,并以电影导演蛮声国际。但以电影导演的身份涉足当代艺术,那视角是怎样的呢?我很好奇。从长安跟我说起长卫的微距百元大钞摄影时起,我就做了各种各样的想象,可是到了长卫的工作室,当他把一张张图片展示给我看时,我还是有相当意外的感觉:面对这些我们熟悉得不能再熟悉的百元大钞,你无论怎样的想象,都难于判断其中相当一部分图像翻拍自百元大钞。

    把一个所有人熟悉的形象,通过微距摄影,创造性地给人们提供了一种意外、独特和全新的视觉形象,这就是顾长卫艺术的语言。钱,在人类文明社会中,占据着相当重要的位置,尤其在中国,钱几乎成为生活价值的第一判断标准,对于中国人,几乎没有比钱是更熟悉的东西了,而顾长卫的这件作品,就是把人们最熟悉甚至崇拜的东西变成一个陌生形象。除了几幅大局部水印,当你安静下来仔细定睛观察时,方能看出隐隐约约毛的形象外,其他图像均类似抽象绘画,而且这些抽象绘画仿佛不是平面的,而象是使用了综合材料精心制作出具有了立体空间层次的效果,而且每一幅皆有看头。如一幅有着鲜艳红色纹路图案的画面,其主要形象是一个圆形图像,而且这个圆形图像令人惊奇看到了凹凸感的立体空间,让整个形象有一种类似古代重要文件使用的火漆封印。那幅应该是毛象衣领第一颗扣子位置的图像,连缀纽扣的线,都是凸出的感觉。他把毛象衣服上的纽扣图像,根据大小不同的放大尺寸,按照视力检测表的样式,自上而下排列,制作成一张有幽默感的视力检测表。当每个人都熟悉的百元大钞,被解析成如此意外而新颖的形象时,与百元大钞有关联的感觉,便在新的观看中被颠覆了。

    这是一种特别的视角,顾长卫说自己有一天拿着一张百元大钞,觉得这东西人们天天在用,多熟悉啊,就有意地盯着它,并开始把玩它,琢磨它……,其实,百元大钞在这个瞬间,在顾长卫的眼里就变成了被审视的对象,一种具有非功利非现实中钱意义上的审美对象。我猜想顾长卫那时的眼睛,随着他内心的感觉,变成了电影摄像机的镜头,拉近,拉近,再拉近……,给观众一个意想不到的大特写于是影院里的观众一声惊呼。这就是我想要的答案:一个电影导演的独特视角和表达方式。从这个角度说,我宁肯认为顾长卫使用微距镜头的方式,产生于他长期使用电影镜头的素质和独特视角。展览期间,顾长卫还有一些特别的物体装置和影像装置,那一定会给观众一个惊奇的视觉效果:那是一个人人所熟知的百元大钞,在完全陌生微观世界中的情形。

    由此想起近些年被热衷使用的德里达解构一词,所以热衷,在于强调了它的破坏”“消解的含义,据法国朋友说其实德里达原意更与分析的含义相近,我不懂法语,更对德里达不甚了了。假定如法国朋友所言德里达原意更近似分析,加上中国人热衷于拆解的含义,我姑且胡乱用一个解析来代替解构,重点在,在。想起八十年代中国当代艺术有一个著名的解析小组,作者是顾德新,陈少平和王鲁炎,作品命名《解析》,其作品方式可以与顾长卫的作品做比较,《解析》以三位作者作为对象,以非常枯燥、繁复和近似数学公式的方式,鲜活的人本身通过解析的过程,如何变成一张类似统计图表式的东西。而顾长卫也采用一种解析,呈现的结果相反,把一个人人都崇拜和无情的钱——百元大钞,是通过非常感觉化的鲜艳、甚至有美食意味的抽象画,让钱脱离它现实的功利属性,在顾长卫的这个系列里,钱不再是钱。

    钱不再是钱,人们熟知巴尔扎克的《欧也妮葛朗台》,那个老葛朗台每天到地窖里去把玩他的金币,在金币当啷当啷的响声中,那是葛朗台的审美活动。人们也熟知《百万英镑》的电影,那张百万大钞,在那个电影里变成了一个艺术品,象征的是人类世界对钱的种种荒唐情景。同样,顾长卫这个作品以不同媒体,同样以喜剧的方式,说的是同一种有关钱的荒唐故事。


    栗宪庭

    2014/11/20




    Imaging Beyond Images 

    -- A Hundred-RMB Bill through the Lenses of Gu Changwei 

    My old friend Kong Chang’an told me: Gu Changwei took some pictures- pictures of a hundred-RMB bill taken with macro lens. Would you like to go see? I know that Gu Changwei has studied art, worked for the film industry as a camera operator, and established himself as an acclaimed film director. I was quite curious ---what perspective would a film director take when involved in making contemporary art? I have pictured all sorts of images since Chang’an told me about the hundred-RMB bill under macro lenses. However, when I visited Changwei’ studio, the photos he showed me were stunning. Even with the wildest imagination, it is hard to believe these unrecognizable images are the photographic remakes of the hundred-RMB bill, an ordinary and familiar object in our life.

    Unique, original, and creative visual imagery taken from a common object and magnified with macro lenses is the artistic language of Gu Changwei. Money, highly “valued” in human civilizations, has become the core “criteria” in China to define and to assess the quality of life. Therefore, nothing can be more familiar than money to a Chinese people. These photographs alienate the image of an object that is the most common and worshipped. Except a few images of enlarged watermarks, some works are vaguely discerned and require a closer look, such as the image of Mao; some resemble abstract paintings, which do not seem to be two-dimensional but with intricate three-dimensional effects created by “multiple materials”.  Each work has its interest and character. There is a picture with patterns in bright red color; the central image is a circle, which surprisingly conveys a sense of depth and bears reminiscent of the waxed seal used on an important document in ancient China. That image is supposedly taken from the first button on the suit of Mao’s portrait; even the sewing thread of that button looks raised and uneven. In another photo, the images of that button on Mao’s suit, in various enlargements and sizes, are playfully arranged in the pattern like an eyesight examination chart. When the familiar hundred RMB bill is “deconstructed” into special and ingenious images, the feeling associated with the hundred RMB bill is also revolutionized through the new perspectives.  

    This is a special point of view. According to Gu Changwei, one day he was holding a hundred RMB bill and thinking how familiar it had become from our daily usage. He then intentionally stared at it, played with it, and pondered upon it. In fact, at this moment, the hundred-RMB bill already became a subject of scrutiny, which is about beauty and thought without any practical meaning. Gu’s eyes, I can imagine, just like the lenses of the camera, follow his thoughtful mind, zoom into the subject, and then frame an astonishing “close-up” that “wins the hail from the audience.” This is the answer I’m looking for: a unique perspective and expression of a film director. From this standpoint, I could say that the way Gu uses macro-lenses originated from his long-time experience in handling “film camera”. In this exhibition, the artist’s special object installations and video installation will ensure another amazing visual experience for the viewers: the unfamiliar micro-universe of a familiar hundred RMB banknote. 

    From here, the term “deconstruction”, coined by Derrida and hyped in recent years, comes to my mind. “Deconstruction” is popularized because of the highlighted implications of “destruction” and “dissolve”. According to my French friend, Derrida actually meant to underscore the meaning “analysis”. I know neither French nor much of Derrida’s theory. If the original intended meaning of “deconstruction” is more close to “analysis” like my friend said, considering the Chinese enjoy “interpreting” any implication/connotation, I would like to propose a term “interpreting-analysis” for “deconstruction”; “interpreting-analysis” is to focus on “analysis”, in another word, to “interpret” through “analyzing”. In the 1980s, a book titled Interpreting Analysis was published by Gu Dexin, Chen Shaoping and Wang Luyan, members of the renown “interpreting-analysis group” in Chinese Contemporary Art circle.  We can draw a comparison of approach between this book and Gu Changwei’s works. In Interpreting Analysis, three living human beings, that is, the three authors are transformed into statistic chart-like objects through boring and complicated computational formulas, interpretation and analysis. While Gu uses a different type of “interpreting analysis”, through which money, the merciless deity of materialism, is relieved from its nature, and the hundred RMB bill is transformed into a sensually attractive abstract painting. In this series of works, money is no longer money. 

    Money is no longer money. Just like in Balzac’s well-known novel Eugenie Grandet, the father spends time in the cellar to play with his golden coins each day; the clang-clank sound of the coins is aesthetically pleasant to his old ears. In the well-known film The Million Pound Note, the million pound bill is also turned into a piece of artwork, symbolizing various money-generated absurdities in the secular world. By the same token, Gu Changwei tells another absurd story about money with different media but in the same comedic way. Li Xianting  November 20, 2014


  • 还原与洞见—殷双喜

    Restore and insight

    还原与洞见

    顾长卫的艺术题材是人所共知的人民币,但是他的艺术内容却复杂而含蓄,具有多角度分析和解读的可能性,这正是当代艺术的魅力——以形式创新表达艺术观念,实现与观众的对话共享。顾长卫运用微距摄影方式将我们带回到艺术的古老源头——观看自然,思考人与物的关系。海德格尔说:艺术作品决不是对那些时时现存手边的个别存在者的再现,恰恰相反,它是对物的普遍本质的再现。人与物每时每刻相遇,而物有身外之物和心内之物,我们在日常生活中对钱币这一身外之物习以为常,从未思考其中隐而不露的奥秘。一花一世界,一树一菩提。顾长卫将纸币高倍放大后重组呈现,使我们在惊异之余沉思与凝想,获得了一种将微观和宏观随时转换的视界。


    观看是一种主体的观看,选择的观看。人民币的图案设计和模板制作均是在高倍放大、高度保密的生产环境中完成的,顾长卫将其还原到设计者和生产者的视觉环境,让我们进入到另一个视觉世界,从日常生活中钱币的占有者、使用者成为视觉形式语言的审美者、探索者。在这一视觉生产与消费的解构与还原过程中,我们发现,作为国家名片的钱币是中国最优秀的设计师的心机成果,他们的设计目标是为了隐藏,让人民在日常之用中视而不见;而顾长卫作为中国最优秀的导演和影像艺术家,他的艺术恰恰揭示了国家符号的丰富内涵,让观众洞见日常之物中的视觉奥秘和生存本色。


    殷双喜  中央美术学院教授、《美术研究》主编,评论家、策展人

© 2019 京ICP备14058008